Could psychologists have learned about obedience without deception? Milgram found that under pressure from an authoritative researcher, most participants would be obedient and administer the "shocks" even though they were apparently causing great physical distress.
Deception occurs whenever participants are not completely informed of the procedures and goals of the research.
The results obtained from the informed participants were completely opposite of the results obtained from the uninformed participants! Now psychologists need to consider not only the goal of understanding behavior but also respect human rights and dignity and develop methodologies that recognize ethical standards while uncovering psychological knowledge.
Rosnow offers suggestions for future work on how to relieve the tension between advancing science and following moral standards: Although Milgram thoroughly debriefed the participants after the experiment - telling them all about the goals and procedure - and psychiatric interviews conducted later indicated no psychological repercussions of having participated in the experiment, there is continuing controversy over whether the ends understanding the conditions of obedience justified the means extreme deception.
Currently disclosure laws appear to take precedence over assurances of confidentiality. The Milgram studies involved deceiving a research participant into believing he was delivering increasingly painful electric shocks to another research participant really an actor-confederate who did not receive any shocks.
One of the most controversial ethical issues has to do with deception. Researchers need to understand their methodology better.
Much of his address concerns the issues of deception and informed consent. Psychologists need to help educate these groups as to the "costs" of not doing certain sensitive research.
The use of deception, no matter how innocuous it may be, violates the ethical principle of informed consent. Regardless of whether a psychologist is directly pursuing research into ethical and methodological issues, he or she needs to reflect on them and be sensitive to how ethical standards influence both the participants and the outcomes of the research.
Although there are many examples of deception in psychological research, probably none are as famous as the Milgram obedience studies carried out in the early s. Ethical Guidelines for Psychological Research Doctors are guided by the Hippocratic oath to "do no harm.
He discusses several examples of seminal research that violates the APA code of ethics and advocates a problem-solving approach to advancing psychological science while maintaining moral standards of psychologists.
Rosnow has written an article based on an address to a meeting of the APA outlining tensions that arise from maintaining ethical standards, such as informed consent, while attempting to advance scientific understanding. The APA code of ethics also contains standards and principles for the use of animals in psychological research.
In his APA address, Rosnow described the social context that lead to the development of the APA code of ethics and discussed how psychological research has been influenced by the code. Was a null result obtained because of poor design, not understanding participant behavior, and weak analyses or because there really is no effect?
Article Summary The Greek poet, Archilochus, wrote, "The fox knows many things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing. Before the development of a code of ethics for human participants, he argued, psychologists were like hedgehogs, pursuing a singular vision of human research.
Ethics review boards tend to concentrate on the "costs" of conducting research.
The issue of participant confidentiality needs to be examined in detail. How can psychologists today continue to advance psychological understanding while maintaining respect for the rights and dignity of their human participants?
All research involving human participants is now evaluated by a review board to determine whether the proposed study meets ethical standards; sometimes methods need to be modified to accommodate ethical principles.Not that long ago, academicians were often cautious about airing the ethical dilemmas they faced in their research and academic work, but that environment is changing today.
Psychologists in academe are more likely to seek out the advice of their colleagues on issues ranging from supervising. What Ethical Dilemmas Might Arise In Psychological Research And How Might They Be Avoided.
Collaborative Learning Community: Analysis of an Ethical Dilemma Collaborative Learning Community: Analysis of an Ethical Dilemma (Part 1) 1) In your CLC group, select one of the following three options and view the video related to your chosen topic (a description of each is provided along with a link.
Dec 13, · What ethical dilemmas might arise in psychological research and how might they be avoided? Guidelines set forth by the American Psychological Association's (APA) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct or Ethics Code should be applied to the evaluation of psychological research and practices.
Ethical Considerations T he consideration of ethics in research, and in general business for that but rather we want to make you more aware of potential ethical issues that might arise when undertaking your research.
To do this, some questions will as they are less frequently applied in research associated with business practices (see.
An ethical psychologist has the obligation to respect the welfare of any individuals with whom the psychologist has a professional relationship, and, in particular, those in a more vulnerable position (e.g., research participants, students, and children). In response to concerns over morality in psychological research, the American Psychological Association (APA) adopted a code of ethics for human participant in research in (it has since been modified somewhat).
The APA code of ethics also contains standards and principles for the use of animals in psychological research.Download